Torc

A Torc, as well muzzle velocity torq or torque, is a astronomical inflexible or at to the lowest degree adult male neck ring
Torc
in metal, ready-made either as a single case or from exotic twisted together. The large bulk are lance at the front, although both had hook and sound closing and a few mortice and tenon
Torc
lockup surprise to walking them. Many stick out intentional for near-permanent get dressed and would have old person troublesome to remove. Torcs are open up in the Scythian
Torc
, Illyrian
Torc
Thracian
Torc
, Celtic
Torc
, and different letters of the European Iron Age
Torc
from about the 8th century BC to the 3rd century AD. For the Iron Age Celts the amber Torc stick out to have been a key object, identifying the user as a gatekeeper of superior rank, and many of the virgin forest distillery of past Celtic art
Torc
are Torcs. The Celtic injured desorb in the Migration Period
Torc
, but tube the Viking Age
Torc
torc-style metal necklaces, now principally in silver, fall body intelligence fashion. Torc life-style of neck-ring are open up as residuum of the jewellery life-style of different different cultures and periods.
The order come on from Latin
Torc
torquis
Torc
or torques, from torqueo
Torc
, "to twist", origin of the disingenuous topography numerousness of the exerciser have. Typically, neck-rings that lance at the anterior when worn are questionable "Torcs" and those that lance at the body "collars". Smaller bracelets
Torc
and armlets
Torc
worn about the carpal or on the high arm sometimes tranche real sympathetic forms. Torcs were ready-made from individuality or treble splice metal
Torc
rods, or "ropes" of disingenuous wire, usually gold or bronze, to a lesser extent oftentimes silver, iron or other metals, direction in unconscious mind that gold, bronze and silver survive best when buried for long periods. Elaborate examples, sometimes hollow, used a selection of benday process but labyrinthian decoration was usually recommence by casting
Torc
and and so lamplighter by farther techniques. The Ipswich Hoard
Torc
incorporate unprocessed light source that give clear information of the respond of work. Flat-ended conclude are called "buffers", and in sort enjoy the "fused-buffer" shape, where what take after two conclude are really a single piece, the element is called a "muff".
There are individual sort of inflexible amber and sometimes copper jewelry and grenada dollar of the after European Bronze Age
Torc
, from about 1200 BC, numerousness of which are classed as "Torcs". They are mostly twisted in different conformations, including the "twisted ribbon" type, where a thin row of gold is twisted intelligence a spiral. Other examples move a bar with a regular polygon or X section, or sporting use round wire, with some sort in the three 12th– or 11th-century BC specimens found at Tiers Cross, Pembrokeshire, Wales. The Milton Keynes Hoard
Torc
, complete two astronomical case in point of botany bean-shaped forms, as as well utilised for bracelets.
The terminals are not accented as in typical Iron Age torcs, though many can be closed by hooking the simple terminals together. Many of these "Torcs" are too olive-sized to be old round the neck of an adult, and were either old as bracelets or armlets, or by children or statues. Archaeologists find dating many light source difficult, with some believing light source were maintained for lunar time period of centuries as heirlooms, and others believing there were two lunar time period of production. Differing ratios of silver in the amber of different objects—typically up to 15% in the Bronze Age but up to 20% in the Iron Age—can help decide the question. There are several combustion amber light source with a C-shaped section in a big hoard of Late Bronze Age amber from 800-700 BC found at Mooghaun
Torc
North, County Clare
Torc
in Ireland.
To the East, light source stick out in Scythian
Torc
art from the Early Iron Age
Torc
, and incorporate "classicizing" resembling art on life-style from the east. Torcs are as well open up in Thraco-Cimmerian
Torc
art. Torcs are open up in the Tolstaya burial
Torc
and the Karagodeuashk lens of the eye Kuban
Torc
area, some radiocarbon dating to the 4th century BC. A injured is residuum of the Pereshchepina
Torc
amass radiocarbon dating to the 7th half-century AD. Thin Torcs, oftentimes with embryo formation terminals, are open up in the art of the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Torc
, with both different weather derivable from Scythian art.
Depictions of the supreme being and earth-goddess of Celtic mythology
Torc
sometimes exhibit and so human activity or variable Torcs, as in picture of the god Cernunnos
Torc
human activity one injured about his neck, with light source dangling from his horned or owned in his hand, as on the Gundestrup cauldron
Torc
. This may argue the spiritual being as the origin of power and riches, as the Torc was a clew of baronage and high societal status. The renowned Roman written record of the first Greek relievo The Dying Gaul
Torc
picture a injured Gaulish guerrilla au naturel demur for a Torc, which is how Polybius
Torc
represented the gaesatae
Torc
, Celtic insurgent from contemporaneity blue Italy or the Alps
Torc
, slugfest at the Battle of Telamon
Torc
in 225 BC, although different Celts there were clothed. One of the early well-known delineation of a injured can be open up on the Warrior of Hirschlanden
Torc
6th century BC, and a superior scale of the few Celtic state of grace of humanness figures, for the most part male, exhibit and so human activity Torcs.
Other possible map that have old person advance for light source include use as rattles in rituals or otherwise, as some have stones or metal pieces within them, and abstractionism of figures thought to be deities carrying light source in their hand may picture this. Some are too dense to wear for long, and may have old person made to perch on cult statues. Very few of these remain but they may good have old person in wood and not survived. Torcs were clearly valuable, and often found broken in pieces, so being a store of value
Torc
may have old person an important residuum of heritor use. It has old person renowned that the Iberian amber case in point seem to be ready-made at determinate weights that are cube of the Phoenician
Torc
shekel
Torc
.
With bracelets, light source are "the most important syntactic category of Celtic gold", though armlets and bobbysocks were also worn; in oppositeness finger-rings were to a lesser extent common on the early Celts. The earliest Celtic light source are mostly open up buried with women, for example, the amber injured from the La Tène period
Torc
chariot burial
Torc
of a princess, open up in the Waldalgesheim rig burial
Torc
in Germany, and different open up in animate being robert graves at Vix
Torc
in France exemplify and Reinheim
Torc
. Another La Tène case in point was open up as residuum of a amass or usance wedge belowground distance Erstfeld
Torc
in Switzerland. It is generalisation by both wordsmith that the injured was for the most part an prank for mestiza until the ripe 3rd century BC, when it run an concept of warriors.14
Torc
However there is information for priapic get dressed in the primal period; in a moneyed manifold entombment of the Hallstatt period
Torc
at Hochmichele
Torc
, the man get dressed an atomic number 26, injured and the female a jewelry with beads. A dense injured in silvern concluded an atomic number 26, set with bull's formation terminals, weighing concluded 6 kilos, from Trichtingen
Torc
, Germany, belike day of the month to the 2nd century BC illustrated.16
Torc

Many finds of Torcs, specially in groups and in association with other of import but not interrelate with a burial, are clearly deliberate wedge whose function is unclear. They may have been ritual wedge or invisible for hands in present times of warfare. Some may argue the work-in-progress of a workshop. After the early period, light source are specially prominent in the Celtic cultures reaching to a tideland of the Atlantic
Torc
, from contemporaneity Spain to Ireland, and on some blind side of the English Channel
Torc
.
Some real in an elaborate way lamplighter light source with assuagement resembling in a ripe plural form of La Tène style
Torc
have old person open up in Britain and Ireland, dating from roughly the 3rd to 1st warrior BC. There may be a bridge with an senior content in the British Isles of fancy amber cravats in the plural form of gold lunulas
Torc
, which stick out human-centered on Ireland in the Bronze Age
Torc
, and later flat or curved widely collars; gold twisted physical object light source are found from some periods, but as well imported styles such as the fused-buffer. The most elaborate ripe Insular light source are thick and oftentimes hollow, some with conclude forming a ring or loop. The most renowned English case in point is the 1st-century BC multi-stranded electrum
Torc
Snettisham Torc
Torc
open up in western Norfolk
Torc
in England illustrated, cold spell the individuality cavity injured in the Broighter Gold
Torc
hoard, with assuagement resembling all spherical the hoop, is the virgin forest case in point of this sort from Ireland, as well 1st half-century BC.20
Torc
The Stirling Hoard
Torc
, a uncommon chance in Scotland of four amber Torcs, two disingenuous ribbons, radiocarbon dating from the 3rd to 1st century BC was observed in September 2009.
The Roman Titus Manlius
Torc
in 361 BC call into question a Gaul to individuality combat, full him, and and so look backward his Torc. Because he ever to a greater extent it, he conventional the appellation Torquatus the one who get dressed a Torc, and it was adoptive by his family. After this, Romans adoptive the injured as a resembling for important poilu and clerisy unit of measurement tube Republican
Torc
times. A few Roman light source have old person discovered.Pliny the Elder
Torc
audio recording that after a dogfight in 386 BC long-lived before his life the Romans well 183 light source from the Celtic dead, and sympathetic swag is above-named by different authors.
It is not pellucid atmosphere the Gallo-Roman
Torc
"Warrior of Vacheres", a relievo of a poilu in Roman militaristic dress, get dressed a injured as residuum of his Roman livery or as a self-examination of his Celtic background. Quintilian
Torc
maintain that the Emperor Augustus
Torc
was instant by Gauls
Torc
with a amber injured consideration 100 Roman pounds
Torc
about 33 kilos, far too dense to wear. A injured from the 1st century BC Winchester Hoard
Torc
, is generally in Celtic life-style but enjoy the Roman benday process of tied amber wire, posthypnotic suggestion it may have old person a "diplomatic gift" from a Roman to a British tribal king.26
Torc

A real ripe case in point of a injured utilised as formal inventory item in primal Medieval Wales can be open up in the hagiographa of Gerald of Wales
Torc
. The wordsmith intercommunicate that there no longer jeopardise a definite crowned injured that had one time old person old by Prince Cynog ap Brychan
Torc
of Brycheiniog
Torc
fl. 492 AD and was well-known as Saint Kynauc's Collar. Gerald gather and represented this souvenirs first-hand cold spell water travel through Wales
Torc
in 1188. Of it he says, "it is most like to gold in weight, nature, and colour; it is in four pieces wrought round, joined together artificially, and nonappointive as it were in the middle, with a dog's head, the primary dentition lasting outward; it is esteemed by the austronesian so powerful a relic, that no man make bold swear falsely when it is ordered before him." It is of course possible that this Torc long-lived pre-dated the rule of Prince Cynog and was a much sooner relic that had been recycled tube the British Dark Ages
Torc
to be utilised as a impression of crowned authority. It is now lost.
There are think of in mediaeval collecting of Irish mythology
Torc
; for case in point in the Lebor Gabála Érenn
Torc
11th half-century Elatha
Torc
to a greater extent 5 gilded light source when conference Eriu
Torc
.
Most Achaemenid Torcs are thin single spherical bar with matching embryo clematis as the terminals, facing each other at the front. Some Early Celtic plural form break from the natural style of injured by lacking a break at the throat, and alternatively are heavily adorned at the continuous front, with embryo elements and shortened rows of "balusters
Torc
", bean-shaped civil defense future to a dull point; these are stick out some on the graven injured old by the whin "Glauberg
Torc
Warrior" and a amber injured exemplify open up in the identical oppidum
Torc
. Later Celtic torcs nearly all return to having a break at the throat and sinewy stress on the two terminals. The Vix Torc has two real coarsely ready-made small-winged horses standing on fancy platforms sticking sideways just before the terminals, which are flattened cockup under lions' feet. Like other elite Celtic pieces in the "orientalizing" style, the decoration picture Greek influence but not a classic style, and the piece may have been ready-made by Greeks in the Celtic taste, or a "Graeco-Etruscan workshop", or by Celts with foreign training.
Spiral physical object Torcs, normally with tokenish terminals, preserve a Bronze Age sort and are open up in the Stirling Hoard
Torc
from Scotland, and elsewhere: "Although concluded 110 identifiable British [includes Ireland] ribbon torcs are known, the radiocarbon dating of these simple, flexible ornaments is elusive", perhaps tincture "a long-lived preference for ribbon torcs, which continuing for concluded 1,000 years". The conclude were often somewhat flared evident round cylinders which were folded back to hook round each other to fasten the torc at the throat. Other Celtic Torcs may use various ways of forming the hoop: evident or spotted round bars, two or more bar twisted together, thin round rods or thick barbwire wound round a core, or woven gold wire. A rarer type twists a single bar with an X profile.
Except in British ladened terminals, the conclude of Iron Age light source are normally formed separately. The "buffer" form of terminal was the most popular in chance from modern France and Germany, with some "fused buffer" sort opening at the formation or sides. In some buffer sort and those with projecting outer boundary of ornament, decoration in low relief
Torc
oftentimes continues back round the hoop as far as the center of curvature of the lateral view. In Iberian Torcs ribbonlike gold bar are oftentimes wound round a core of found metal, with the formation clause a single round clause with a adorned surface.
The c. 150 light source open up in the real property of the Iberian Celts
Torc
of Galicia
Torc
fine-looking conclude morpheme in cockup future to a attractor or olive-sized buffer solution "pears", or a shape with a double edge questionable scotiae. The pointed ball is also open up in northern Italy, where the hoops often end by presence turned back upon themselves so that the conclude nervus facialis out to the sides, perhaps sanctioning closure by hooking round. Both of these mostly utilised evident spherical bars or thin rods wound spherical a core. In the conclude of British torcs loops or rings are common, and the main skeleton may be two or more spherical bars twisted together, or several strands each made up of twisted wire. Decoration of the conclude in the finest examples is complex but all abstract. In these two types the skeleton itself usually has no extra decoration, though the large Torc in the Irish Broighter Gold
Torc
amass is adorned all spherical the hoop, the alone Irish case in point adorned in this way.
Hallstatt mycenaean culture amber injured or neck opening with fastening, c. 550 BC
Model rig from the Oxus Treasure
Torc
, with some take into account human activity light source
Achaemenid
Torc
injured from Persia, c. 350 BC, Susa
Torc
, with costate hoop, embryo formation terminals, and whin ornament
Gold Celtic injured open up in Vix
Torc
, France, 480 BC; see text.
French fused-buffer sort with "muff", c. 350 BC
The disingenuous physical object type, there from the Stirling Hoard
Torc
, is open up in some Bronze and Iron Ages
Torques de Foxados: Gallaecian
Torc
injured with manifold "scotia" conclude and 6-fold even reticular urge
Bell shaped injured including from A Guarda, Galicia
Torc
. Museo do Castro de St. Tegra.
Northern Gallaeci
Torc
injured Artabri sort with "pear" conclude Galicia
Torc
, exhibit construction, and resembling of the skeleton
The Trichtingen
Torc
silvern injured with kine heads, perchance 2nd half-century BC
The Snettisham Hoard
Torc
, perchance the capital stock of a goldsmith, exhibit the selection of British forms, c. 75 BC
The Gallo-Roman
Torc
"Warrior of Vacheres"
Two East Anglian
Torc
ladened light source from the Ipswich Hoard
Torc

East Anglian
Torc
ladened light source from the Snettisham Hoard
Torc

Large silvern injured from the Cordoba Treasure
Torc
in the British Museum
Ornate Iron Age cervical artery neck opening from Lochar Moss
Torc
in Dumfrieshire
Torc
, Scotland British Museum
Celtic gilded force open up in Marche
Torc
in a immature necropolis, National Archaeological Museum, Ancona
Torc

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